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tv   BBC World News America  KQED  March 19, 2013 2:30pm-3:00pm PDT

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of the charts and an exhibition celebrating that iconic style. welcome to our viewers on public television in america and also around the globe. at least 50 people have been killed in a series of bomb attacks in the iraqi capital baghdad. the violence comes exactly 10 years after the start of the iraq war. although coalition forces managed to remove saddam hussein, the nation has been plagued by corruption and instability. our correspondent now reports. >> it was a savage commemoration -- extremists duties -- extremist sunnis deliberately targeted shias as they waited at
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bus stops or other public places. for a few hours, it felt like a return to the worst days of the insurgency and the civil war. dozens of injured people have been brought to hospitals like this right across baghdad. normally, this road would have been absolutely crammed with traffic, but people are staying home today. there is a real fear that more bombs could happen, a fear that people have grown used to for the last 10 years. >> on this night in 2003, the hammer blows of the american attack started what turned into a decade of insurgency and civil war. opinion polls at the time indicated that half the iraqi people in this deeply divided country welcomed the invasion while the other half were bitterly angry. a lot of that anger is still around.
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this is a place that's tends to attract riders and intellectual -- writers and intellectuals. it was bombed. the owner lost four of his sons and a grandson. >> the invasion has not been a success at all. it has held us back 100 years. it has destroyed me and my family, who have become widowed and orphan. >> it is only a mile away, but here, the customers are young and very different. the facebook cafe is the kind of place where no one cares what religion you are, the continuing sectarian violence, which the invasion and least 10 years ago, makes everyone depressed. she works as a waitress, something rare. she wants to get out, she says. there is no future in this country. except, there could be, thanks
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to iraq's future oil wealth. the last 10 years have seen hundreds of thousands of lives snuffed out or ruin, and more lives were lost today. more on where iraq stance 10 years on, i spoke a short time ago with president bush's envoy to iraq directly following the 2003 invasion. thanks very much for coming in. how will history look back on this war? >> it is, in a way, too early to ask. obviously, in 10 years, everybody says we need to have the answer, but i do not think we have it yet because it is a mixed record. there is good stuff and bad news. you have to find a balance, and it will take awhile. >> what could america have done to make it less of a mixed record and more of a good record? >> i have said all along that the transition from dictatorship to democracy is hard. it takes time, and the key factor is security. we did not provide adequate
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security really until bush ordered the surge in 2007. when you do not have security in the post-conflict situation, you are going to have a real problem. you have simply got to provide security, and we did not do it at the outset, and i think that had an impact on everybody. >> you are in a position where i think you were called the vice whatever at -- sardonically, i think, at one point. >> i was going to say, not by me. >> you could talk to the military and political leadership in washington. when you said to them, "we need more security," what was the response? >> i said it even before i left to the president and secretary of state and secretary of defense. their view was that they would have enough troops there, that it would be relatively easier, and they still hoped that they were going to get massive amounts of other nations to come in.
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there was a limit to how much i could do as a civilian other than simply telling people that i thought we needed more troops, including the president. them and you have been critical of the military strut -- >> you have been critical of the military strategy, but it was you who ordered debaathification, the disbanding of the army, both of which have been blamed. >> i think the conventional wisdom was wrong on several counts. de-baathification never polled below 95%, which meant it was getting broad support from all sectors of the economy. i did make a mistake, which was turning it over to iraqi politicians. i should have turned it over to
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judges, people who did not have a political ax to grind. on the army, there was no question it was the right thing to do not to recall the army. we should have not said it was disbanding it. the pentagon said it would be self-demobilized. it would have been a big mistake to have called the army back. it would have led to the break up iraq. the kurds were very clear they would secede. when we did try to bring back a single battalion in april 2004, it went immediately over to the insurgency and started shooting at americans. it did not work. building the army from the bottom up -- a new army from the bottom up -- was the right path. today, the iraqi army is the most respected institution in the country. >> when you look back your tenure in baghdad, it was a difficult time. are you proud of what you did? >> i am satisfied. proud is probably going to far. i think that the 3000 civilians who work in the cpa from 25 different countries have a lot to be satisfied with what we
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did. the most important thing was helping the iraqis create the most progressive and liberal constitution anywhere in the arab world. >> thank you very much, and thank you for your candid responses. >> nice to be with you. >> after hours of debate, the parliament in cyprus has rejected a revised plan to secure an international bailout. the vote sparked jubilation among the hundreds of protesters who had gathered outside in nicosia, but it does lead the government looking urgently for an alternative. we are following every twist and turn. the cyprian parliament has rejected this e you deal, but what are their options now -- the supreme it -- supremecypriot parliament.iot >> that is the question. there will be a lot of frantic negotiations and frantic talks going on between cyprus and brussels to try to come up with a credible alternative. tomorrow at 9:00 in the morning
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local time, political party leaders will convene with the president to try to come up with a credible alternative, a plan b. there has been a very clear message sent from cyprus to brussels, and it is this -- the bailout, the whole deal has had severe miscalculations. if anything comes back to a plan b, a to have to be radically different. >> i remember speaking to german officials, and they kind of shrugged off the idea that cypress, of all european countries, could cause a problem, but that is exactly what it is doing. and at exactly. this is the third smallest member of the eurozone, the third smallest economy in the eurozone. nobody expected this to be the center, the crux of the eurozone financial woes, but now it is. many say cypress sleepwalk into the problem. all the warning signs are there, but nobody heeded them. this has long been a tax haven, a country whose banking sector
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is eight times the size of the economy. cyprus new what was happening in did not take action. now it is a country that is in severe crisis, and it could really set off a chain reaction across the eurozone. that said, it would be unlikely that the eurozone would let them drop out or a bailout that pales in comparison to the rest, but there will have to be a radical the calculus -- the calculation to try to stabilize the entire single currency -- a radical recalculation to try to stabilize the entire single currency. >> thank you. if you thought the euro crisis was over, it may be time to think again. let's go to syria where there is a confused picture over a potentially dangerous development tonight. the syrian government and rebels are accusing each other of launching a deadly chemical attack near the northern city of aleppo. state news claims that 25 people were killed by a rocket containing poisonous gases.
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the rebels denied the allegation. they are blaming the assad regime. russia supports the government's claim. the united states says there is no evidence. >> i am not going to discuss intelligence, but it is important that is fighting in syria and to devise any regime becomes more desperate that the united states and international community make absolutely clear to assad that the use of chemical weapons would be totally unacceptable. >> totally unacceptable -- jay carney there. steve, it is a complicated picture. what do we know about what happened and what did not happen? >> it is cloudy. it is hard to make an assessment from here. people who know about these things -- there seems to be a consensus that we should at least be cautious about these claims.
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-look at the video of the victims, they do not seem to have the injuries that would be consistent with the chemical weapons attack. talking about smelling the chemical agent, you would have needed vast quantities of chlorine, which was used by insurgency in iraq. these experts do not believe -- certainly the rebels and possibly not the syrian government as well -- have the power capacity to deliver chlorine on the scale. >> whether or not this attack happened, clearly, the white house is watching carefully. what do they mean when they say it is totally unacceptable or would be totally unacceptable? >> the white house response has been multilayered and really quite nuanced today. they have, as she said, flatly rejected the suggestion that the rebels carried out a chemical attack. they do not rule out categorically the possibility that the syrian government carried out an attack and then blamed the rebels. it was telling just a short time ago that the president's new chief of staff had the
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opportunity to rule that out. he has not yet. we are seeing another drawing of the red line, the red line from washington from washington to mr. assad that if you use of proliferate chemical weapons, there will be quite enormous consequences. and although it is not clear what america would do if they find that they had used chemical weapons. >> senior republican senators are asking what "enormous consequences" means. certainly, as he gets to the region, he will become front and center in the debate that takes place there. talking about american boots on the ground, strikes on the weapons stockpile, talking about a strike on damascus. what would they do, the americans, if the red line were crossed? >> barack obama is heading to the middle east i just a few hours. he will depart for his first visit to israel and the occupied palestinian territories as president to the u.s.. it is largely seen as a symbolic
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trip commodus twa's after benjamin netanyahu's coalition government was installed. symbolic trip coming just two days after benjamin netanyahu's coalition government was installed. >> this is barack obama's first visit here as president. no expense is being spent, and no amount of red, white, and -- no expense is being scared. three years ago, benjamin netanyahu publicly lectured president obama about the realities of middle eastern politics in his own office. the president looked on ashen face. spokesman are said to regard the other with suspicion, and despite recent efforts to dispel that perception, there is still no special chemistry.
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>> they had issues. i can recall the issues. there was some kind of tension between both sides, but even though they seem to say we must understand, we must remember, but behind personal feelings, there are interests. >> the state of the economy and social affairs was a big issue in the recent israeli elections. barack obama is likely to find a new israeli government less concerned about peace talks but very preoccupied about the unstable state of the wider region. what mr. obama will hear from his israeli counterparts is israel is very jittery. they are preparing for a fallout
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as syria disintegrates and hezbollah rearms. >> we are getting ready to shoot back and to be much more aggressive or much more decisive in this war in order to make this war and as quick as possible. mereve years ago as a presidential candidate, barack obama net and family rebuilding their home after a rocket attack from gaza. whatever impact he made then has long worn off. >> he says he is like any other color vision but acknowledges he has been a very good friend to israel. and a difficult trip. you are watching "bbc world news america." still to come, pope francis celebrates his first public mass
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as leader of the catholic church, showing signs of changes to come already. just six months after being shot in the head by the taliban today, a girl returns to school. targeted for campaigning to get girls the same rights and was back inmallalah the classroom in britain. she said she missed her classmates from pakistan. she also said she is looking forward to meeting new friends in birmingham. >> because of the state of the people, i can even walk -- i can even run out. yousafzai only narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in pakistan. following her recovery, this is her first day back at school here in britain. >> all the children should go to school. it is their basic right.
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>> it is her uniform that she is most proud of unlike most teens. >> it proves that i am is today. it is the happiest day for me this year. i am living my life, my own life, going to school and learning. >> she was a student when she began campaigning for girls rights to an education. taliban extremists shot her in the head. since then, she has been receiving treatment in birmingham. >> at 15, she has already seized responsibility, taking her fight for education to the world stage. there's even talk of a nobel peace prize. concerns today, her are those of every other british teenager. it is all about making friends. she is doing her best. >> she herself wants to be a normal teenage girl and to have the support of other girls around her. i think that is something she has very much missed during her time in hospital.
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>> she will enter in your 9 -- year 9. >> today, tens of thousands of people filled st. peter's square for the first public mass of pope francis. the newly installed pontiff said out his priorities and thrilled the crowd, riding around in an open vehicle. our correspondent has the story. >> he wants his pontificate to be marked by humility, to be a pope close to the people, so gone are the bullet through screens that would separate him from the masses. he mary's the authority of the papacy with the informal spontaneity of a parish priest -- he marries the authority of the papacy with the informal spontaneity of a parish priest.
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>> he is very strong. >> among the foreign dignitaries, president fernandez of his native argentina. in defiance of an e you travel ban, the zimbabwean president robert mugabe, himself a catholic. from the senior cardinals, pope francis accepted the insignia of his office symbolizing his role as good shepherd. every pope since the first millennium has been given his fisherman's ring, bearing the image of st. peter. he receives it with the words spoken and -- in the gospel of matthew by cheeses. >> you are peter and upon this raw, i will build my church. today is the feast of st. joseph. >> joseph was the protector of mary and jesus, the pope said, but he could make truly wise decisions only when he was realistic and in touch with his
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surroundings. was that a coded reference to the need to bring the church closer to the world out there? a correspondent from vatican radio read a lesson. she was the only woman to contribute to what was otherwise an exclusively male a fair. >> the church is missing out because women are probably 70% of the women of this church. we have always been the backbone of prayer in the church. we have always been the backbone of real work. we are just not represented at the top level of the church. >> pope francis was elected in part because he promised change. he wants to sort out the way the church is governed come to make it a more effective evangelizing force in the world. the clerics who built their careers in there are waiting nervously to find out what he has in store for them. >> the rituals are over. for pope francis, the hard work of effective renewal now begins.
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of pope and a change of style at the vatican. music icon david bowie is back on top of the british charts for the first time in 20 years with his new album "the next day." his style has even won him an exhibition at london's victoria and albert museum, and the tickets are hard to come by. >> the rock star david bowie does not exist. he is a fictitious creation of this chat, david jones, a young man with a casting card and a dream of a career in cabaret. he created a persona called davy jones, who invented david bowie, the thin, white do,
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all of whom became iconic. it might seem frivolous, and overblown celebration of a popular entertainer, but it is not without its merits. it argues that he's not only an important musician, but also an artist with the ability to create age-defining imagery that has had a lasting legacy. >> the power of that image, i think, still resonates today. he brought everything to get -- together, and that caught my attention in 1973. it was incredible. stylist andeye of a the mind of a magpie, he would use other people's ideas as his ingredients, synthesize him in his blender, and serve up a fresh new site and creation.
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you'll find japanese kabuki theater, british rock and roll, and late 1960's sci-fi. >> the exhibition is called "david bowie is all around you," and we have a constantly changing series of images. he has permeated our world. >> and he will continue to do so. his latest album has gone straight to number one and sees him launch a new persona, which is that of an elusive, nostalgic rock star called david bowie. >> ok, which all goes to show there is no age limit to being cool. that album at the top of the charts. david bowie enjoying a whole revival back in britain. that brings the show to a close. remember, you can carry on and watch bbc news. for all the updates around the world on our 24-hour news
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network, just check your local listings. you will find our channel right there. and if you like to contact the bbc news team, you can find us on twitter. thanks for watching. due to an in tomorrow -- do tune in tomorrow. >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation of new york, stowe, vermont, and honolulu, newman's own foundation, union bank, and fidelity investments. >> your personal economy is made up of things that matter most, including your career. as those things change, fidelity can help you readjust your retirement plan, rethink how you are invested, and refocus as your career moves forward. wherever you are today, a fidelity ira has a wide range of investment choices that can fit your personal economy.
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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: car bombings and suicide blasts ripped through baghdad today, killing 65 people on the tenth anniversary of the u.s.-led invasion of iraq. good evening. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. on the newshour tonight, we get the latest on today's violence, and look back at the conflict that swept saddam hussein from power and left nearly 4,500 americans and more than 100,000 iraqis dead. >> woodruff: then, we turn to the vatican, where pope francis set the tone for a humbler, simpler church at his inaugural mass. jeffrey brown talks to john allen in rome. >> me where againing now the focus shifts from style to substance and the question becomes how is this new tone going to be translated into the hard work of actually governing the church? there, of course, the challenges are considerably more steep
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>> ifill: we continue our series of stories about the middle east, margaret warner reports on the divide among the two leading palestinian factions, and its impact on the quest for peace. . >> it is really a divide over power. who's going to control what and what's going to be in a stronger position to win the palestinian people and who's going to have the narrative on its side? >> woodruff: and we examine a dramatic shift in public opinion with a majority of americans supporting same sex marriage. that's all ahead on tonight's newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: